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Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a landlocked Alpine country in Central Europe. The country, which borders Germany to the north, France to the west, Italy to the south, and Austria and Liechtenstein to the east, was historically a confederation, and has been a federation since 1848. Switzerland is a federation of relatively autonomous cantons, some of which have a history of confederacy that goes back more than seven hundred years, arguably putting them among the world's oldest surviving republics. With an area of forty one thousand two hundred and eighty five square kilometers, Switzerland is a relatively small country. Switzerland comprises three basic topographical areas namely the Swiss Alps, the Swiss plateau, and the Jura Mountains. Switzerland has four official languages namely German, French, Italian and Romansh.
The city of Berne is the administrative capital of Switzerland and the fourth most populous Swiss city. It has a total population of 127,000 and a total surface area of 52 square kilometers. Most of Berne's residents speak German, or more specifically, Bernese German, which is a high-Alemannic dialect. The Canton of Bern has a French-speaking part. Very few people still speak the Matteanglisch, a secret language used in the former workers' quarter Matte, but several words have found their way in the Bernese German. Bern also functions as the capital of the Canton of Bern, the second most populous of Switzerland's cantons.
In 1353 Berne joined the young Swiss Confederation, becoming a leading member of the new state. In 1831 the city became the capital of the Canton of Bern and in 1848 it additionally became the Swiss administrative capital. Bern lies in the Swiss plateau part of the Canton of Bern, somewhat west of the center of Switzerland. The landscape around Bern was formed by glaciers in the last ice age. The city is built on very uneven ground. There are several dozens of meters in height difference from the quarters down at the Aare to the higher ones. 

A city known for its historic myths and traditions, scenic beauty, luxurious hotels and cottages, Bern is one of the favorite holiday destinations for most of the vacation lovers. It is also considered as the preeminent, historical and potential tourism destination that enjoys a very positive reputation with worldwide travelers to become one of the most visited places.

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