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Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a landlocked Alpine country in Central Europe. The country, which borders Germany to the north, France to the west, Italy to the south, and Austria and Liechtenstein to the east, was historically a confederation, and has been a federation since 1848. Switzerland is a federation of relatively autonomous cantons, some of which have a history of confederacy that goes back more than 700 years, arguably putting them among the world's oldest surviving republics. With an area of 41,285 square kilometres, Switzerland is a relatively small country. Switzerland comprises three basic topographical areas namely the Swiss Alps, the Swiss plateau, and the Jura mountains. Switzerland has four official languages namely German, French, Italian and Romansh.
Zug is capital of the Swiss canton of that name, is a picturesque little town at the northeastern corner of the lake of Zug, and at the foot of the Zugerberg, which rises gradually, its lower slopes thickly covered with fruit trees. In 2004, population was 23,000, mainly German-speaking and Romanists.
The town, first mentioned in 1240, is called an oppidum in 1242, and a castrum in 1255. In 1273 it was bought by Rudolph of Habsburg from Anna, the heiress of Kyburg and wife of Eberhard, head of the cadet line of Habsburg, and in 1278 part of its territory, the valley of Aegeri, was pledged by Rudolph as security for a portion of the marriage gift he promised to Joanna, daughter of Edward I of England, who was betrothed to his son Hartmann, but whose death in 1281 prevented the marriage from taking place. The town of Zug was governed by a bailiff, appointed by the Habsburgs, and a council, and was much favoured by that family.
In 1385, Zug joined the league of the Swabian cities against Leopold III of Austria and shared in the victory of Sempach, as well as in the various Argovian and Thurgovian conquests of the Confederates, and later in those of Italy, having already taken part in the occupation of the Val d'Ossola. Between 1379 and 1477 Zug had acquired various districts in her own neighbourhood, principally to the north and the west, which were ruled till 1798 by the town alone as subject lands. Zug is said the place of best geographical environment and can trace its origins back to prehistoric times. It enjoys a very positive reputation with worldwide travelers.

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